Table of contents

Table of contents
Dedication
Preface
1. Capabilities
1.1. Network capabilities
1.1.1. GSM CSD
1.1.2. GPRS
1.1.3. HSCSD
1.1.4. Conclusion
1.2. Device capabilities
1.2.1. Introduction
1.2.2. Palm
1.2.2.1. Palm m100
1.2.2.2. Palm IIIc
1.2.3. Windows CE powered mobile devices
1.2.3.1. Windows CE 3.0
1.2.3.2. Pocket PC
1.2.3.2.1. Compaq iPaq 3630
1.2.3.2.2. Hewlett-Packard Jornada 545/548
1.2.3.2.3. Casio E-115/125
1.2.3.2.4. Casio EM-500
1.2.3.3. Handheld PC
1.2.3.3.1. Hewlett-Packard Jornada 720
1.2.3.3.2. Intermec Technologies Corporation 6651
1.2.4. Psion
1.2.5. Sony CMD-Z5
1.3. Browser capabilities
1.3.1. AvantGo
1.3.2. Browsers for PalmOS
1.3.2.1. Palmscape 3.0
1.3.2.2. Pendragon Browser 2.0
1.3.2.3. DPWeb
1.3.2.4. Palm Web Clipping
1.3.3. Browsers for EPOC
1.3.3.1. Psion Message Suite
1.3.3.2. Opera 3.62 for EPOC
1.3.4. Browsers for Windows CE
1.3.4.1. MIME types
1.3.4.2. Security types
1.3.4.3. URL types
1.3.4.4. Scripting languages
1.3.4.5. HTML and Object Model Reference
1.3.4.6. Detecting the Pocket Internet Explorer on the web server
1.3.4.7. Features of the Pocket Internet Explorer
1.3.4.7.1. Pocket IE 1.x
1.3.4.7.2. Pocket IE 2.0
1.3.4.7.3. Pocket IE 3.0 H/PC Pro
1.3.4.7.4. Pocket IE 3.0 PPC
1.3.4.7.4.1. Multiple windows
1.3.4.7.4.2. Supported fonts
1.3.4.7.4.3. Correct tag matching
1.3.4.7.4.4. Animated GIF
1.3.4.7.4.5. ActiveX controls
1.3.4.7.4.6. Java applets
1.3.4.7.4.7. Security
1.3.4.7.4.8. XML support
1.3.4.7.5. Internet Explorer 4.0 for H/PC 2000
1.3.4.8. More information
1.3.5. Microsoft Mobile Explorer
1.4. Application protocol capabilities
1.4.1. A typical HTTP session
1.4.2. Persistent connections in HTTP/1.1
2. Guidelines for mobile browsers
2.1. Usability
2.1.1. What is usability?
2.1.2. Page design
2.1.2.1. Separate content segments by whitespaces
2.1.2.2. Visualize a page's context with regard to the whole web site
2.1.2.3. Enable browsers to optimize the display
2.1.2.4. Optimum font size
2.1.2.5. Graphics
2.1.2.5.1. Text in graphics
2.1.2.5.2. Page performance
2.1.2.5.2.1. Page retrieval process of web browsers
2.1.2.5.3. Reuse graphics multiple times
2.1.2.5.4. Hyperlinks to high-volume objects
2.1.2.6. Tips from other sources
2.1.3. Content design
2.1.4. Site design
2.2. Visual user interface design
2.3. Overview about technical guidelines
2.3.1. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0
2.3.2. HTML 4.0 Guidelines for Mobile Access
2.3.3. CSS Mobile Profile 1.0
2.3.4. Designing Web Sites for the Internet Explorer for Pocket PC
2.3.4.1. General design guidelines
2.3.4.2. Forms design for the Pocket Internet Explorer
2.3.4.3. Design guidelines for information sites
2.3.4.4. Frames
2.3.4.5. Background sound
2.3.4.6. Text fields and text areas
2.3.4.7. Buttons
2.3.4.8. Tables
2.3.4.9. Graphics and images
2.3.4.10. Image detail
2.3.4.11. Image colour
2.3.4.12. Image design
2.3.4.13. Alt tags
2.3.4.14. Image maps
2.4. General guidelines
2.4.1. Low-volume web pages
2.4.2. Minimum number of objects per web page
2.4.3. Guidelines for HTML
2.4.3.1. General
2.4.3.2. Presentation design
2.4.3.3. No frames
2.4.4. Guidelines for images
2.4.5. Guidelines for applets and scripts
2.4.6. Guidelines for multimedia
2.4.7. Unintentional redirection
2.5. W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines in practice
2.5.1. General
2.5.1.1. Priority 1
2.5.1.1.1. Provide a text equivalent for every non-text element
2.5.1.1.2. Ensure that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup
2.5.1.1.3. Organize documents so they may be read without style sheets
2.5.1.1.4. Until user agents allow users to control flickering, avoid causing the screen to flicker.
2.5.1.1.5. Use the clearest and simplest language appropriate for a site's content.
2.5.1.2. Priority 2
2.5.1.2.1. Ensure that foreground and background color combinations provide sufficient contrast when viewed by someone having color deficits or when viewed on a black and white screen
2.5.1.2.2. When an appropriate markup language exists, use markup rather than images to convey information.
2.5.1.2.3. Create documents that validate to published formal grammars.
2.5.1.2.4. Use style sheets to control layout and presentation
2.5.1.2.5. Use relative rather than absolute units in markup language attribute values and style sheet property values.
2.5.1.2.6. Use header elements to convey document structure and use them according to specification.
2.5.1.2.7. Mark up lists and list items properly.
2.5.1.2.8. Mark up quotations. Do not use quotation markup for formatting effects such as indentation.
2.5.1.2.9. Ensure that dynamic content is accessible or provide an alternative presentation or page.
2.5.1.2.10. Until user agents allow users to control blinking, avoid causing content to blink (i.e., change presentation at a regular rate, such as turning on and off).
2.5.1.2.11. Until user agents provide the ability to stop the refresh, do not create periodically auto-refreshing pages.
2.5.1.2.12. Until user agents provide the ability to stop auto-redirect, do not use markup to redirect pages automatically. Instead, configure the server to perform redirects.
2.5.1.2.13. Until user agents allow users to turn off spawned windows, do not cause pop-ups or other windows to appear and do not change the current window without informing the user.
2.5.1.2.14. Use W3C technologies when they are available and appropriate for a task and use the latest versions when supported.
2.5.1.2.15. Avoid deprecated features of W3C technologies.
2.5.1.2.16. Divide large blocks of information into more manageable groups where natural and appropriate.
2.5.1.2.17. Clearly identify the target of each link.
2.5.1.2.18. Provide metadata to add semantic information to pages and sites.
2.5.1.2.19. Provide information about the general layout of a site (e.g., a site map or table of contents).
2.5.1.2.20. Use navigation mechanisms in a consistent manner.
2.5.1.3. Priority 3
2.5.1.3.1. Specify the expansion of each abbreviation or acronym in a document where it first occurs.
2.5.1.3.2. Identify the primary natural language of a document.
2.5.1.3.3. Create a logical tab order through links, form controls, and objects.
2.5.1.3.4. Provide keyboard shortcuts to important links (including those in client-side image maps), form controls, and groups of form controls.
2.5.1.3.5. Until user agents (including assistive technologies) render adjacent links distinctly, include non-link, printable characters (surrounded by spaces) between adjacent links.
2.5.1.3.6. Provide information so that users may receive documents according to their preferences (e.g., language, content type, etc.)
2.5.1.3.7. Provide navigation bars to highlight and give access to the navigation mechanism.
2.5.1.3.8. Group related links, identify the group (for user agents), and, until user agents do so, provide a way to bypass the group
2.5.1.3.9. If search functions are provided, enable different types of searches for different skill levels and preferences.
2.5.1.3.10. Place distinguishing information at the beginning of headings, paragraphs, lists, etc.
2.5.1.3.11. Provide a means to skip over multi-line ASCII art.
2.5.1.3.12. Supplement text with graphic or auditory presentations where they will facilitate comprehension of the page
2.5.1.3.13. Create a style of presentation that is consistent across pages
2.5.2. Tables
2.5.2.1. Priority 1
2.5.2.1.1. For data tables, identify row and column headers
2.5.2.1.2. For data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers, use markup to associate data cells and header cells.
2.5.2.2. Priority 2
2.5.2.2.1. Do not use tables for layout unless the table makes sense when linearized. Otherwise, if the table does not make sense, provide an alternative equivalent (which may be a linearized version).
2.5.2.2.2. If a table is used for layout, do not use any structural markup for the purpose of visual formatting.
2.5.2.3. Priority 3
2.5.2.3.1. Provide summaries for tables.
2.5.2.3.2. Provide abbreviations for header labels.
2.5.2.3.3. Until user agents (including assistive technologies) render side-by-side text correctly, provide a linear text alternative (on the current page or some other) for all tables that lay out text in parallel, word-wrapped columns.
2.5.3. Forms
2.5.3.1. Priority 2
2.5.3.1.1. Until user agents support explicit associations between labels and form controls, for all form controls with implicitly associated labels, ensure that the label is properly positioned.
2.5.3.1.2. Associate labels explicitly with their controls.
2.5.3.2. Priority 3
2.5.3.2.1. Until user agents handle empty controls correctly, include default, place-holding characters in edit boxes and text areas.
2.5.4. If all else fails
2.5.4.1. Priority 1
2.5.4.1.1. If, after best efforts, you cannot create an accessible page, provide a link to an alternative page that uses W3C technologies, is accessible, has equivalent information (or functionality), and is updated as often as the inaccessible (original) page.
3. Best fitting document type
3.1. Introduction into HTML 4.01 Strict
3.2. Introduction into XHTML™ Basic
3.3. HTML vs. XHTML in general
3.3.1. The user's perspective
3.3.2. The web author's perspective
3.4. HTML 4.01 Strict vs. XHTML Basic
4. Authoring solutions
4.1. Content selection and negotiation
4.1.1. Content selection by links
4.1.2. Content selection by markup
4.1.3. Content selection by automatic content negotiation
4.1.3.1. Language versions
4.1.3.2. Media types
4.1.4. Composite Capabilities/Preference Profiles
4.1.5. Special Case: Internet Explorer for Pocket PC
4.2. Web authoring solutions
4.2.1. Static web pages
4.2.1.1. Using XSLT for static web pages
4.2.1.2. Support for different browser types
4.2.1.2.1. Automatic selection
4.2.1.2.1.1. Redirection
4.2.1.2.1.1.1. Sample Perl code
4.2.1.2.1.2. Reading the file from disk
4.2.1.2.2. Manual selection
4.2.1.3. Web editors for "mobile aware" web pages
4.2.1.4. A single XML document for the whole web site
4.2.2. Dynamic content creation
4.2.2.1. Server Side Includes
4.2.2.1.1. SSI commands
4.2.2.1.2. SSI server configuration
4.2.2.1.3. How to benefit from SSI
4.2.2.2. JavaServer Pages™
4.2.2.3. Active Server Pages
4.2.2.4. ASP.NET
4.2.2.5. PHP 4
4.2.2.6. Application servers
4.2.2.6.1. WebObjects by Apple
4.2.2.6.2. Cold Fusion
4.2.2.7. Cocoon by the Apache Project
4.2.2.8. Native applications using XML and XSLT processors
4.2.2.9. Pocket Explorer's built-in support for XML and XSLT
4.2.2.10. Native applications whichever technique they use
4.2.3. Automatic content reformatting
4.2.4. Conversion from HTML to XHTML
4.2.4.1. HTML Tidy: Converter for HTML to XHTML
5. Special web site services for mobile devices
5.1. Printing and storing of web pages
6. Testing
7. Conclusions
8. Abbreviations
9. References
9.1. [1] - [20]
9.2. [21] -
10. Further reading
11. Web goodies for mobile browsers
12. About the authors
Colophon
A. Appendix
A.1. Cellular phones with web browsers
A.2. DTD for web publishing
A.3. Examples of 'user-agent' identifications
A.4. XML editors
A.5. XSLT processors
Index

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Copyright © 2001-2003 by Rainer Hillebrand and Thomas Wierlemann